Since biblical times, discord between Jews and Gentiles has plagued the Body of Messiah. In his letter to the Romans, Paul wrote extensively on the issue, humbling Jews by telling them that they are not better than Gentiles (3:9), and humbling Gentiles by telling them to not boast over Jews (11:17–21). Gentiles are not even to boast over unbelieving Jews, Paul explained, because “regarding the chosenness, [Jews] are beloved on account of the fathers,” called with an irrevocable call which God will not regret (11:28-29, mjlt). Indeed, though many Jews today reject their Messiah, they can still “be grafted [back] into their own olive tree,” and one day “all Yis’rael will be saved” (11:24–26, mjlt).

Despite Paul’s teaching, however, the same division has grown, such that both anti-Semitism (racist contempt for Jews) and anti-Jewish sentiment (intellectual or theological bias against Jews) have continued to pervade Christianity throughout its history.

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